Experts teach you the correct way to open sports.

Nanjing Daily/Purple Mountain News reporter YUANYUAN Ding

Although Nanjing has entered the "beginning of autumn" solar term, the "autumn tiger" in Nanjing is still to be reckoned with. As the saying goes, "practice three or nine in winter and three volts in summer", and exercise is important. With the number of people who regularly take part in physical exercise in China exceeding 400 million, Nanjing people’s awareness of active fitness is also increasing. Experts remind that people of different ages pay attention to exercise in different seasons, and everyone should exercise moderately according to their physical condition to prevent injuries.

Scientific movement is evaluated first.

Recently, the Joint and Sports Medicine Center of Zhongda Hospital affiliated to Southeast University received a 62-year-old citizen, Ms. Wu Yuzhen. Ms. Wu has the habit of jogging, but not long ago, she felt pain in her knee joint, and the weather was hot, so she changed jogging to swimming. She thought that underwater exercise could relieve the pain, but she didn’t expect the pain in her knee joint to become more and more obvious. Dr. Ma Ming, deputy director of the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Zhongda Hospital affiliated to Southeast University and deputy director of the Joint and Sports Medicine Center, received her. Ma Ming found in the diagnosis and treatment that during the long-term exercise, the meniscus inside Ms. Wu’s knee has been damaged, but there has been no inflammation. "For Ms. Wu, the strength training of lower limbs such as climbing, running and swimming is not suitable. We suggest that she change her exercise mode to Tai Ji Chuan or walking on the ground or walking in the water, especially walking on the ground, which has little pressure on people’s knees and ankles and is suitable for people of all ages and physical qualities." After a month’s adjustment, Ms. Wu, who came for a follow-up visit, found that the pain in her knee joint had disappeared by more than half.

Xu Xiaoyi, an assistant researcher at Nanjing Institute of Sports Science, said that "scientific fitness" is now advocated. "The so-called scientific fitness is to regulate the appropriate exercise intensity, exercise time, exercise mode and exercise frequency in the form of exercise prescription according to one’s own physical health, living environment and personal sports hobbies, and pay attention to safety matters during exercise to avoid sports injuries, so as to achieve the purpose of keeping fit." Xu Xiaoyi suggested that qualified citizens can go to Nanjing Sports Hospital or the community health center around them to find a sports prescriber to evaluate their sports ability and prescribe scientific sports prescriptions according to their personal physique.

There are differences in exercise at different ages.

According to Xu Xiaoyi, people of different ages choose to exercise differently. Among them, teenagers should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to high-intensity physical activity every day. "Preschool children aged 3 to 6 can ride a balance car with auxiliary wheels and catch the ball, effectively exercising the coordination of hands, eyes and feet. 7-8 years old belongs to the slow development stage, especially the development of cardiovascular system is slower than that of sports system, so try to choose sports with less intense physical exertion. Teenagers aged 12-18 have fast bone development and growth, which is suitable for training to enhance bone density and explosive force, such as basketball, tennis and football, and has a very positive role in enhancing physical fitness and promoting bone development and maturity. Adults aged 18 to 64 suggest at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week, or at least 75 minutes of high-intensity aerobic exercise per week, or a combination of moderate and high-intensity exercises. For the elderly over 65 years old, it is necessary to choose exercise items and exercise intensity according to their health conditions. For example, patients with severe hypertension cannot carry out weight lifting training, and elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis should not jump rope. In addition, the elderly can use the heart rate during exercise to control the amount of exercise. The suitable heart rate for exercise is generally 170 minus age, and the heart rate can be monitored through the exercise bracelet. "For the elderly, moving is better than not moving, and moving more is better than moving less. Within the acceptable range, it is still appropriate to move more. For some elderly people in wheelchairs, you can do more upper limb exercises. " Xu Yiyi said.

Fitness is particular in different seasons.

Although the weather is hot now, most people still have the habit of outdoor fitness. Outdoor sports in hot weather is not impossible, but it is by no means possible. Experts suggest that outdoor high-confrontation sports at over 30 degrees Celsius, such as basketball and tennis, should be avoided as much as possible. In addition, we must pay attention to scientific hydration.

What is scientific hydration? Xu Xiaoyi said that for athletes engaged in high-intensity competitive sports, it is best to use special sports drink granules, which contain energy and sufficient electrolyte. Ordinary people can choose Gatorade, Baokuangli and other sports drinks with a small amount of electrolyte to complete general intensity exercise. The elderly or people with weak constitution do not recommend strenuous exercise, that is, they are afraid of sweating a lot and electrolyte disorder, which will lead to cramps, fatigue and even more dangerous accidents. It should be noted that after exercise, don’t wait for thirst before drinking, but follow the principle of "small amount and multiple times" and drink slowly. It is not recommended to blow air conditioning or take a cold bath when you are sweating after exercise.

The climate in spring and autumn is changeable, and the temperature difference between morning and evening is large. Therefore, when you go out for exercise, you should pay attention to cold and warmth, and it is more appropriate to get up when the sun is about to come out for morning exercise. Fully relax muscles and ligaments before exercise. After exercise, it is necessary to organize activities and self-massage, adjust blood circulation and prevent muscle stiffness. Winter is the season of high incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and the bones and muscles of the human body are relatively stiff. Before exercise, we should extend the time of preparation activities to wake up the body. During exercise, we should pay attention to increasing the amount of exercise step by step, dry the sweat in time after exercise, and put on dry and warm clothes.

Source: Nanjing Daily